1 - THE FIRST PROOF: THE EVIDENCE OF THE FITRAH (HUMAN INSTINCT)
Sound Human Instinct Bears Witness to the Existence of Allah Without (Any Need for Further) Evidence
The Qur’an does not discuss at length the matter of proving the existence of Allah(s.w.t) because it states that sound human instinct, and minds that are not contaminated with the filth of shirk, affirm His existence (without any need for further evidence). Not only that, Tawheed or the affirmation of Divine Unity, is something which is natural and instinctive.
In the Qur’an it says:
“So set you [O’ Muhammad] your face towards the religion [of pure Islamic Monotheism] Haneef [worship none but Allah Alone]. Allah’s Fitrah [i.e. Allah’s Islamic Monotheism] with which He has created mankind. No change let there be in Khalq-illaah [i.e. the religion of Allah, Islamic Monotheism], that is the straight religion...”(Qur’an 30:30)
This fitrah is the thing which explains the phenomenon that has been noted by those who research the history of religions, that all nations whose history has been studied have adopted gods which they have turned to and venerated.
It may be said at this point, “If turning towards Allah is something natural, then people would not have worshipped different gods at different times.”
The answer is, that the fitrah (natural instinct) calls man to turn towards his Creator, but man is surrounded by many other influences which make him deviate towards the worship of other gods.
Parents, writers, teachers and others instil into children’s minds ideas which change and contaminate this fitrah, placing a veil over the fitrah so that they are not able to turn towards the truth.
The Messenger(s.a.w) stated that what we have referred to here is true. Bukhari and Muslim narrated on the authority of Abu Hurayrah (r.a) that the Messenger of Allah (s.aw.) said:
“Every child is born in a state of fitrah, then his parents make him into a Jew or a Christian or a Magian.”
— He did not say that they make him Muslim, because Islam is in accordance with the fitrah.
It may be said: “If we were to leave a child with no influences to affect his fitrah, would he turn out to be a monotheist, knowing his Lord?” We say: “If the devils among men leave him alone, and do not contaminate his fitrah”, but the devils among the Jinn (shayaateen) will never leave him alone, as the Shaytaan made a vow that he would misguide the children of Adam:
“[Iblees (Satan) said: ‘By Your Might, then I will surely, mislead all. Except Your chosen slaves amongst them [i.e. faithful, obedient, true believers of Islamic Monotheism].” (Qur ’an 38: 82-83)
The Shaytaan has been given the power to reach people’s hearts, as stated in the hadith:
“The Shaytaan flows in man like blood flows through his veins, and I fear that he may cast some evil - or he said, something - into both your hearts.”
The Qur’an describes the Shaytaan, from whom we must seek refuge with Allah (s.w.t), as one who,
“…Whispers into the hearts of mankind.” (Qur ’an 114:5)
It is also true that every person has a hidden mate (qareen) from among the Jinn who urges and encourages him to do evil. In the Qur’an it says:
“His companion [Satan-devil] will say: ‘Our Lord! I did not push him to transgression, [in disbelief, oppression, and evil deeds], but he was himself in error far astray.” (Qur’an 50:27)
No one can be safe from this unless he turns to Allah(s.w.t) for refuge.
“Say: I seek refuge with [Allah] the Lord of mankind, The King of mankind, The llaah [God] of mankind,From the evil of the whisperer [devil who whispers evil in the hearts of men] who withdraws [from his whispering in one’s heart after one remembers Allah].Who whispers into the hearts of mankind. Of jinn and men.” (Qur’an 114: 1-6)
The shayaateen among the ]inn play a ma]or role in corrupting and contaminating human nature.It is reported in Muslim from ‘Iyaad ibn Himaar that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) addressed one day, and one of the things he said in his khutbah (address) was:
“My Lord has commanded me to teach you what you do not know of what He has taught me today: all the wealth that I have given to My slaves is halaal, and I created all of My slaves as haneefs [worshipping Allah Alone], then the shayaateen came to them and led them astray from their religion. They forbade them things that I had permitted for them, and commanded them to associate others in worship with Me for which I had not sent down any authority.”
Calamities Purify the Essence of the Fitrah
It is often the case that the veils covering the fitrah and preventing it from seeing the truth will be removed when calamity strikes or problems arise for which no help is forthcoming from any human being and there is no means of saving oneself. How many atheists have acknowledged their Lord and turned to Him when overwhelmed with calamity and how many mushrikeen (idolaters and polytheists) have made their devotion solely for Allah alone when disaster strikes?
“…Till when you are in the ships, and they sail with them with a favourable wind, and they are glad therein, then comes a stormy wind and the waves come to them from all sides, and they think that they are encircled therein.Then they invoke Allah, making their Faith pure for Him Alone, [saying]: ‘If You [Allah] deliver us from this, we shall truly, he of the grateful.” (Qur’an10:22)
We have heard how airplane passengers turned to their Lord when their plane developed problems and started to shake and swing about in the air, and the pilot - let alone the passengers - was not able to do anything about it. Their atheism vanished and they were screaming prayers, and their hearts turned to their Lord in all sincerity. There was no room for shirk (polytheism) and atheism in the face of such a terrifying ordeal.
The Mushrikeen (Polythiests — the Idolaters) to Whom the Messenger (s.a.w) was Sent Acknowledged the Existence of the Creator
The Arabs whom the Messenger (s.a.w) confronted acknowledged the existence of Allah and that He Alone is the Creator of the universe.They also believed that He Alone was the Provider and that He alone could bring benefit or cause harm... but they worshiped others alongside Him, and they did not devote their worship to Him alone.
When the Qur’an calls the mushrikeen to worship Allah Alone and to make their religion for Him Alone, it asks them Who the Creator and Sovereign of the heavens and the earth is, for they knew that, and they never denied it:
“And if you [O’ Muhammad] ask them: ‘Who has created the heavens and the earth,’ they will certainly say: ‘Allah’..."(Qur’an 31: 25)
In Soorah al-Mu’minoon (the chapter: The Believers) it says:
“Say: ‘Whose is the earth and whosoever is therein? If you know!’ They will say: ‘It is Allah’s!’ Say: ‘Will you not then remember?’ Say: ‘Who is [the] Lord of the seven heavens, and [the] Lord of the Great Throne?’They will say: ‘Allah.’ Say: ‘Will you not then fear Allah [believe in His Oneness, obey Him, believe in the Resurrection and Recompense for every good or bad deed]?’ Say: ‘In Whose Hand is the sovereignty of everything [i.e. treasures of everything]? And He protects [all], while against Whom there is no protector [i.e. if Allah saves anyone, none can punish or harm him; and if Allah punishes or harms anyone, none can save him], if you know?’ They will say; ‘[All that belongs] to Allah.’ Say: ‘How then are you deceived and turn away from the truth?” (Qur’an 23:84-89)
It is well known that the Arabs used to venerate the Ka‘bah and perform Hajj, and they had other acts of worship that they did.
The Kufr (Disbelief) of People Nowadays is Greater
We should not have had to pause too long to prove the existence of Allah, because sound human nature bears witness to His existence. We hardly know of anyone in the past who denied the existence of the Creator; those that did were so few as to be hardly worth mentioning.
But deviation has reached its lowest point nowadays. We see people who have established states based on this principle, states whose inhabitants include millions of people.
This idea has spread everywhere, books have been written about it and it has developed a philosophy which is the subject of study. Its proponents have tried to make it a scientific methodology and have fried to bring forth proof to support it.
Because of this, we have no choice but to produce our own proof concerning this matter.
come back...will be contibued inshaAllah...
The Qur’an offers the disbelievers and deniers proof which rational minds have no option but to affirm and which no sound mind can possibly reject. Allah (s.w.t), says:
“Were they created by nothing? Or were they themselves the creators? Or did they create the heavens and the earth? Nay, but they have no firm Belief.”(Qur’an 52: 35-36)
The Qur’an says to them: “You exist, and you cannot deny this”; the heavens and die earth exist, beyond any doubt. It is simply common sense, to the rational mind, that the things which exist must have a cause for their existence. The camel herder in the desert knows this. He says, “Camel dung indicates the presence of a camel and footsteps indicate that someone walked here. So the heavens with their stars and the earth with its mountains and valleys must indicate the existence of the All-Knowing, All-Aware.” The great scientists who research into life and living beings also know this.
What is referred to in this aayah (verse) is known to the scientists as the law of cause and effect. This law states that a (possible) thing cannot happen by itself without another thing (causing it), because it does not possess in itself the power to exist by itself, and it cannot by itself cause something else to exist, for it cannot give to others that which it does not itself possess.
Let Us Give an Example to Explain This Law More Clearly
A few years ago, the sands in the Rub‘ al-Khaali desert (the Empty Quarter) were blown away by a windstorm to reveal the ruins of a city that had been covered by the sands. Scientists began to examine the contents of the city to try to determine the period in which it had been built. Nobody among the archaeologists or others even suggested that this city could have appeared as a result of the natural actions of the wind, rain, heat and cold, and not by the actions of man.
If anyone had suggested such a thing, people would have regarded him crazy and would have taken pity on him. So how about if someone had said that this city was formed by the air from nothing in the far distant past, then it settled on the earth? This suggestion is no less strange than the previous, in fact it is far stranger.
Why? Because nothing cannot create something, which is simply the matter of common sense, and a thing cannot create itself.
According to the way we know the city, there has to be someone who brought it into existence. What we see tells us something about the people who made it. The city must have been made by intelligent people who were skilled in construction and planning.
If we see a person going from the bottom of a building to the top, we see nothing strange in that, because a person has the ability to do that. But if we see that a rock which was in the courtyard of the building has moved to the top of the building, we will be certain that it did not move by itself There has to have been someone who picked it up and moved it, because a rock does not have the ability to move or climb.
It is strange that people are certain that the city could not have come into existence without a creator, and that it could not have built itself and they are certain that the rock must have had someone who would take it up to the top of the building, but there are those among them who insist that this universe came into being without a creator, even though the structure of the universe is far more complex.
“The creation of the heavens and the earth is indeed greater than the creation of mankind;...” (Qur’an 40: 57)
But when these deniers are confronted with scientific logic that addresses their reason, they have to either accept it or stubbornly reject it.
This is the evidence with which the scholars of Islam are still confronting the deniers. One of the scholars was approached by some of these heretics who deny the Creator. He asked them: what would you say about a man who tells you, I have seen a ship laden with cargo, filled with goods, in the middle of the ocean, being buffeted by waves and winds, yet, despite all that, it is sailing smoothly and following a straight course, with no sailors controlling or steering it. Is this reasonable to believe?
They said, “This is irrational.”
The scholar said: “Subhaan Allah! If it is not rationally possible for a ship to sail smoothly across the sea without any sailors or crew, then how is it possible for this world, with all its different forces and factors, with its vastness and huge variety, to exist without a Creator or Keeper?” They all wept and said, you have spoken the truth, and they repented.
This law, which is rationally acceptable, is what is referred to in the aayah:
“Were they created by nothing? Or were they themselves the creators?”(Qur’an 52: 35)
This is evidence which forces rational minds to accept that there is a Creator Who is to be worshipped. The aayah is worded in such an eloquent and moving way that anyone who hears it will be moved deeply.
Bukhari narrated in his Saheeh that Jubayr ibn Mut‘im said: “I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) reciting Soorah at-Toor in Maghrib (prayer). When he reached this passage —
“Were they created by nothing? Or were they themselves the creators? Or did they create the heavens and the earth? Nay, hut they have no firm Belief. Or are with them the treasures of your Lord? Or are they the tyrants with the authority to do as they like?”(Qur’an 52: 35-37)
— my heart almost began to soar.”
Al-Bayhaqi said that the Abu Sulaymaan al-Khattabi said: “The reason why he was so moved when he heard these aayaat was because he understood the aayaat so well and because what he learned from the strong evidence contained therein touched his sensitive nature, and with his intelligence he understood it...”
With regard to the meaning of the aayah (verse),
“Were they created by nothing?...” (Qur’an 52:35), Al-Khattabi said: “Or were they brought into being without a creator? That could not happen, because the creation must inevitably be connected to the Creator. There has to have been a Creator. If they deny the Divine Creator, but they could not have come into being without a creator creating them, then did they create themselves? That is an even more fallacious argument, because if something does not exist, how can it be described as having power, and how could it create anything? How could it do anything? If these two arguments are refuted, then it is established that they have a Creator, so let them believe in Him.
Then Allah (s.w.t) says: “Or did they create the heavens and the earth? Nay, but they have no firm Belief” (Qur’an 52: 36). This is something which they cannot lay any claim to. Thus they are defeated (in argument) and proof is established against them.”
The point of what Al-Khattaabi said about that to which the kuffaar could not lay any claim is to put an end to this argument and dispute, because there could be some arrogant person who says “I created myself” just as one of his ilk who came before him claimed to have the power over life and death:
“Have you not looked at him who disputed with Ibraheem [Abraham] about his Lord [Allah], because Allah had given him the kingdom? When Ibraheem said [to him]: ‘My Lord [Allah] is He Who gives life and causes death.’ He said, ‘I give life and cause death.’...”(Qur’an 2: 258)
What was Ibraheem’s response? He replied with another question which exposed the tyrant’s incapability and proved him to be a liar:
“...Ibraheem [Abraham] said, ‘Verily, Allah brings the sun from the east; then bring it you from the west.’...”(Qur’an 2: 258)
The result of that was:
“...So the disbeliever was utterly defeated. And Allah guides not the people, who are Zaalimoon [wrongdoers].” (Qur ’an 2: 258)
Let us suppose that someone said, “I created myself” Can he claim that he created the heavens and the earth? If nothing did not create heavens and the earth, and if the heavens and the earth did not create themselves, and if these people cannot claim that they created all of that, then there must inevitably be a Creator Who created all of that, and this Creator is Allah, Glorified be He and Exalted.
The attitude of the empirical sciences towards this law
Human power and the nature of created beings is incapable of listing all the stages of cause and effect and tracing its sequence back, step by step, until it reaches the beginning of the universe. Hence the empirical sciences have no hope of finding out the origin of things. These sciences expressed refraining from such attempt. All that they have been able to do is to trace a few steps behind them, leaving everything beyond that to the realm of the unseen, conceding which scholars and ignorant people are on equal footing.
Reason has no choice but to admit
But this human despair of ever discovering the stages of creation in detail, with regard to both the past and the future, is counterbalanced by the general belief which every mind must acknowledge, voluntarily or otherwise, that no matter how long the list of cause and effect is, and whether it is considered to be finite or infinite, there should still be something else which carries in itself the cause of its existence and continued existence. This is the true beginning, before which there was nothing, otherwise all these created things would not have come into being (if they did not have an originator which exists independently).
Specious Arguments About the Origin of the Universe
We hear and read specious arguments which were put forward in the past, and those which are being proposed nowadays, which attempt to explain the existence of the universe. We shall quote some of these arguments and endeavour to explain where they went wrong.
1)The View that it Happened by Accident
Having examined the Qur’anic evidence which is addressed to the rational mind and which obliges it to acknowledge the existence of the Creator Who is to be worshipped, the notion that this universe came into being by accident without any creator is not only far from the truth, but also irrational. Whoever says this could be counted as one of those prattlers who have lost their minds, because they are stubbornly rejecting evidence which the rational mind has no choice but to accept and submit to.
There are yet others who said, “If six monkeys sat at typewriters and banged on the keys for billions of years, it is not unlikely that in the last pages they wrote we would find one of the sonnets of Shakespeare. This is the case with the universe that exists now. It came about as the result of random forces which played with matter for billions of years.”
Waheed Uddeen Khan said, after quoting this paragraph from Huxley: “Any talk of this nature is utter nonsense. None of our branches of sciences — until the present day — know what type of accident could produce such a great reality with all its wonder and beauty.”
He quotes another scientist who denounced this view by saying: “The idea that life happened as the result of an accident is like saying that you could get a dictionary as the result of an accidental explosion in a printing press.”
Waheeduddin Khan states, “Mathematics, which has given us the concept of probability, itself states that it is mathematically impossible for this universe to have come into existence by accident.”
Look at this example which Waheeduddin Khan quotes from the American scholar Christie Morrisson, which explains how it is impossible that the universe could have come into being by accident. He said: “If you take ten coins, and write on them the numbers from one to ten, then put them in your pocket and mix them well, then you try to take them out of your pocket in ascending numerical order (i.e., from one to ten), the chance of you taking out the coin on which is written the number one on the first attempt is one in ten. The chance of you taking out all ten coins in numerical order (1, 2, 3,4...) is one in ten billion.”
On this basis, how long would it take for this universe to assume its current shape if it had come about by accident? If we were to calculate that in the same manner, we would not be able to imagine or calculate the numbers, let alone comprehend them.
Everything in the universe tells us that it was brought into existence by an omniscient, wise Creator, but man is unjust (to himself) and ignorant.
“Be cursed [the disbelieving] man! How ungrateful he is! From what thing did He create him? From Nutfah [male and female semen drops] He created him and then set him in due proportion. Then He makes the Path easy for him. Then He causes him to die and puts him in his grave. Then when it is His Will, He will resurrect him [again]. Nay, but [man] has not done what He commanded him. Then let man look at his food: We pour forth water in abundance. And We split the earth in clefts. And We cause therein the grain to grow. And grapes and clover plants [i.e. green fodder for the cattle].And olives and date palms.” (Qur’an 80: 17-29)
How could man have been created and formed by accident, when his food is created in such a well-planned manner that requires the cooperation of the heavens and the earth? Allah (s.w.t), indeed spoke the truth when He described man as:
“...Verily he was unjust [to himself] and ignorant.”(Qur’an 33: 72)
2)The View that Nature is the creator
This is a lie which has become widespread in our own time, and has deceived even the prominent scientists, many of whom explain the creation of things through nature by saying it is nature that creates and originates.
We would like them to answer the question: What do you mean by nature? Do you mean the essence of things? Or do you mean the laws that govern and control the universe? Or do you mean other forces beyond this universe that created it and brought it into existence?
If they say that by nature they mean the universe itself, then we do not need to bother renting them, because the falseness of this view is obvious from what we have said above. This view repeats the idea referred to above, that a thing can bring itself into existence. In other words, they are saying that the universe created the universe, i.e., the heavens created the heavens, the earth created the earth, the universe created man and animals. We have already explained that human reason refuses to accept that a thing could create itself. To make matters clearer, we say that a thing cannot create something that is more developed than itself .Nature, such as the heavens, earth, stars, sun and moon, does not possess reason or the faculties of hearing and seeing, so how could it create man who hears, sees and knows? This cannot be.
If they say, all of that was created by accident, we say, we know for sure that there was no accident involved in the creation of the universe. We have already explained this above.
The theory of self-generation (a specious argument that has been proven to be false)
One of the things that helped to spread this new idolatry (the view that nature is the creator) was the scientists’ observation of the appearance of maggots in the excrement of humans and animals, and the formation of bacteria which ate food and caused it to rot. They said, these are living beings which are generated by nature alone.
This idea lent weight to the new idolatry of “nature” in the eyes of those who were misguided far astray from the true religion of Allah. But the guidance of Allah soon exposed the falsehood of this theory at the hands of the famous Trench scientist Pasteur who proved that these maggots and bacteria referred to did not generate themselves from nature, but their origins lay in something even smaller that was invisible to the naked eye. He produced evidence which convinced other scientists that what he said was true. He sealed some food away from the open air, and killed the bacteria by boiling it; no new bacteria formed in the food and it did not turn rotten. This is the theory on which the food canning industry is based.؛®
Nature is the laws which govern the universe
Another group suggests that nature is the laws which govern the universe. This is the view of those who claim to have knowledge and who believe that nature is the creator. They say: this universe is running according to certain laws which regulate its affairs down to the last detail. The events that happen in this universe happen according to these laws. This is like a clock which runs accurately and precisely for a long time, running by itself with no controller.
In fact, these people are not answering the question that has been asked: Who created the universe? They tell us about the way in which the universe operates, and they tell us how these laws affect things, but we want to know who created the universe and who created the laws that govern it.
Waheeduddin Khan says, “Ancient man knew that rain came from the sky, but nowadays we know everything about how water evaporates from the sea until drops of water fall on the land. All of this is a description of what happens, but it is not in itself an explanation. Science does not tell us how these events became laws, or how the water is held between heaven and earth in these stunning and beautiful forms (clouds). It is from these phenomena that the scientists derived these laws.
When man claims that by discovering the laws of nature he has solved the mystery of the universe, he is only deceiving himself. When he makes this claim, he is putting a link from the middle of the chain at the end.
Nature does not explain anything (about the universe). It itself is in need of explanation. Read this debate that could take place between an intelligent man and a doctor who is prominent in his field:
Questioner: Why is blood red?
Doctor: Because there are red cells in the blood. The size of each cell is 1/700 of an inch.
Questioner: OK, but why are these cells red?
Doctor: Because in the blood there is a substance called haemoglobin, which becomes red when it is mixed with oxygen in heart.
Questioner: That’s fair enough, but where do these cells which carry haemoglobin come from ?
Doctor: They are manufactured in your liver.
Questioner: Wonderful! But how are all these things — the blood, cells, liver etc. — connected to one another so perfectly, and how do they each play their part with such precision?
Doctor: This is what we call the laws of nature.
Questioner: But what do you mean by the laws of nature?
Doctor: What we mean by the laws is the blind internal operation of natural and chemical forces.
Questioner: But why do these forces always produce the same result? How are things regulated so that birds fly in the air, fish live in water and man lives in this world with all his amazing potentials and capabilities?
Doctor: Don’t ask me about that. My science only tells me about what happens, it does not answer the question about why it happens.
From these questions it becomes clear the extent to which modern science can explain the causes and effects behind this universe. The universe is like a machine which operates beneath a cover, and we know nothing about it except the fact that it is running.”But if we lift the lid, we will see how the many parts and cogs of this machine are connected to one another, how they turn one another; we will see all the movements of this machine. But does this mean that we know who created this machine, just by looking at its parts spinning? How can our seeing the machine running be proof that the machine came into existence by itself and is running by itself?”
Nature is a force
There are those who say that nature is a force which created the universe, and that it is a living, hearing, seeing, wise and powerful force... We say to them, this is right, but your mistake is that you call this force “nature.” This creative, innovative force has told us the name by which it deserves to be called, and that is “Allah.” Allah has told us of His beautiful Names and sublime Attributes, so we must call Him by the names which He has called Himself, Exalted is He and All-High.
Those who came before them said something similar
Those who attribute creation to nature had Predecessors who said something very similar. These were the Dahriyah — the atheists — who attributed events to Ad-Dahr (time). They saw that children grow into adults, adults grow into old men and old men die as time goes by and night and day alternate, so they attributed life and death to time.
“And they say: ‘There is nothing but our life of this world, we die and we live and nothing destroys us except Ad-Dahr [time].’ And they have no knowledge of it, they only conjecture.(Qur’an 45: 24)
Those people attributed events to time, and these people attribute them to the nature of things; both are equally misguided.
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