We would not have needed to discuss the previous issue at length were it not for the fact that so many doubts and specious arguments surround it that the researcher is obliged to examine their fallacy.
Now it is time for us to discuss in detail the second issue, which is the most important topic of this kook, the issue which lies at the heart of the matter.
We have already stated that the Qur’an tackles this issue in two ways, to confirm this great reality;
a) It speaks of the perfection of Allah’s creation and describes the wonders of the universe which indicate the greatness of the Creator.
b) It speaks directly of Allah, the Exalted, - His essence, names, attributes, blessings and creations. We shall endeavour - In sha Allah (God willing) - to discuss this in detail, and Allah (s.w.t), is the One Whose help we seek.
1-EVIDENCE OF THE UNIVERSAL SIGNS WHICH POINT TO THE CREATOR AND INITIATOR
1) The Qur’anic Methodology in Using the Universal Signs as Evidence
i) Exploring the universe through the Qur’anic description
The Qur’an takes us on one journey after another through the horizons of the heavens and the different parts of the earth, pausing to consider the flowers of the meadows, taking us up to the stars in their orbits. In this way it opens our eyes and our hearts, showing us how the power and decree of Allah operate in His creation, uncovering for us the mysteries of creation, guiding us to the wisdom behind creation, and explaining the immense blessings which He has bestowed upon us and the universe around us.
This is a long discussion about it in the Book of Allah which is conveyed in long and short soorahs (chapters). It is a very interesting discussion which captivates the soul, is a pleasure to listen to. It stirs the emotions and senses.
I have studied much of what science and scientists have discovered about all aspects of life, explaining the mysteries of creation and how creation points to the Creator, but I have never found anything in all of that which is like the beautiful descriptions given in the Qur’an, with so much detail that stirs the emotions and guides the heart, reaching precise conclusions. How could it be otherwise, when the Qur’an has been sent down by the All-Wise, Most Praiseworthy?
Allah’s Actions in the Universe
Come with me on a journey through the aayaat (verses) of the Qur’an, where we will explore this universe to see how the power of Allah operates in different areas: in a seed thrown into the soil, which splits and sends its roots down into the earth, so that from an inanimate seed comes forth life which is represented in its stem, leaves, fragrant flowers and fruits which nourish both men and beasts... in the dawn when it breaks... in the still of night... in the movements of the sun and the moon...
“Verily, it is Allah Who causes the seed grain and the fruit stone [like date stone] to split and sprout. He brings forth the living from the dead, and it is He Who brings forth the dead from the living. Such is Allah, then how are you deluded away from the truth? [He is the] Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed the night for resting, and the sun and the moon for reckoning. Such is the measuring of the All-Mighty, the All-Knowing.”(Qur’an 6: 95-96)
Look how the clouds are formed by Allah:
“See you not that Allah drives the clouds gently, then joins them together, then makes them into a heap of layers, and you see the rain comes forth from between them; and He sends down from the sky hail [like] mountains, [or there are in the heaven mountains of hail from where He sends down hail], and strikes therewith whom He wills, and averts it from whom He wills. The vivid flash of its [clouds] lighting nearly blinds the sight.”(Qur’an 24:43)
Allah (s.w.t), tells us how He deals with the shade or shadow:
“Have you not seen how your Lord spread the shadow. If He willed, He could have made it still But We have made the sun its guide [i.e. after the sunrise, the shadow shrinks and vanishes at midnoon and then again appears in the afternoon with the decline of the sun, and had there been no sunlight, there would have been no shadow]. Then We withdraw it to Us - a gradual concealed withdrawal.” (Qur’an 25: 45-46)
Look how He (s.w.t), deals with matters of life and living beings, and with the night and day:
“Say [‘O’ Muhammad]: “O’ Allah! Possessor of the kingdom, You give the kingdom to whom You will, and You take the kingdom from whom You will, and You endue with honour whom You will, and You humiliate whom You will. In Your Hand is the good. Verily, You are Able to do all things. You make the night to enter into the day, and You make the day to enter into the night [i.e. increase and decrease in the hours of the night and the day during winter and summer]. You bring the living out of the dead, and You bring the dead out of the living.And You give wealth and sustenance to whom You will, without limit [measure or account].” (Qur’an 3: 26-27)
The Qur’an does not only tell us of the power of Allah and how it operates in the universe, how His knowledge encompasses all His creatures and how He is the disposer of all affairs - it also tells us the purpose for which He created the universe.
Allah (s.w.t), created this earth for the sake of man:
“He it is Who created for you all that is on earth..."(Qur’an 2: 29)
He created it for us in a manner that is suited to our nature and serves our interests. This is what the Qur’an calls subjugation (taskheer).
He does not only tell us that by way of information; He explains to us the subjugation that Allah has created in the universe:
“See you not [O’ men] that Allah has subjected for you whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth,...” (Qur’an 31: 20)
The stars were created for us to navigate by at night on land and sea:
“It is He Who has set the stars for you, so that you may guide your course with their help through the darkness of the land and the sea. We have [indeed] explained in detail Our Aayaat [proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.] for people who know.” (Qur’an 6: 97)
The earth and the heavens, the coming down of rain from the sky, the ships that sail in the sea, the rivers which flow throughout the land, the sun and moon, the succession of night and day... all of these have been created for our benefit:
“Allah is He Who has created the heavens and the earth and sends down water [rain] from the sky, and thereby brought forth fruits as provision for you; and He has made the ships to be of service to you, that they may sail through the sea by His Command; and He has made rivers [also] to be of service to you. And He has made the sun and the moon, both constantly pursuing their courses, to be of service to you; and He has made the night and the day, to be of service to you. And He gave you of all that you asked for,...” (Qur’an 14: 32-34)
ii) The blessings of Allah in the universe
The Qur’an tells us that Allah (s.w.t), has created this universe and subjugated it for us. He has made it compatible with our nature, and ordered it in such a way that suits the life of man. The Qur’an uses this explanation as a means to make man give thanks to his Lord, for man is inclined by nature to love the one who is kind to him:
“Is there any reward for good other than good?” (Qur’an 55: 60)
Hence the Qur’an speaks in detail about the blessings which Allah (s.w.t), has bestowed upon His slaves in themselves:
“Say it is He Who has created you, and endowed you with hearing [ears] and seeing [eyes], and hearts. Little thanks you give.” (Qur’an 67:23)
- and in the universe around them:
“Who has made for you the earth like a bed, and has made for you roads therein, in order that you may find your way. And Who sends down water [rain] from the sky in due measure, then We revive a dead land therewith, and even so you will be brought forth [from the graves]. And Who has created all the pairs and has appointed for you ships and cattle on which you ride. In order that you may mount on their backs, and then may remember the Favour of your Lord when you mount thereon,..."(Qur’an 43: 10-13)
He (s.w.t), has created the sun and the moon for us in a manner that serves our interests and benefits us:
“It is He Who made the sun a shining thing and the moon as a light and measured out for it stages that you might know the number of years and the reckoning...”(Qur’an 10: 5)
The an‘aam - camels, cattle and sheep - and horses, mules and donkeys, have all been created for us to use, and they have all been created in a manner that suits our nature:
“And the cattle, He has created them for you; in them there is warmth [warm clothing], and numerous benefits, and of them you eat. And wherein is beauty for you, when you bring them home in the evening, and as you lead them forth to pasture in the morning. And they carry your loads to a land that you could not reach except with great trouble to yourselves. Truly, your Lord is full of kindness, Most Merciful. And [He has created] horses, mules and donkeys, for you to ride and as an adornment. And He creates [other] things of which you have no knowledge.” (Qur’an 16:5-8)
The sea has also been created for us; in its creation and in the (ships) that sail on it are many things that benefit us:
“And He it is Who has subjected the sea [to you], that you eat thereof fresh tender meat [i.e. fish], and that you bring forth out of it ornaments to wear. And you see the ships ploughing through it, that you may seek [thus] of His bounty [by transporting the goods from place to place] and that you may be grateful.” (Qur’an 16: 14)
Allah (s.w.t), created bees to do their wonderful work, to produce for us this drink of varying colours, to provide nourishment and a healing for man:
“And your Lord inspired the bee, saying: ‘Take you habitations in the mountains and in the trees and in what they erect. Then, eat of al fruits, and follow the ways of your Lord made easy [for you].’ There comes forth from their bellies, a drink of varying colour wherein is healing for men. Verily, in this is indeed a sign for people who think.” (Qur’an 16: 68-69)
The Qur’an urges us to seek and know Allah through His Universal Signs
The Qur’an urges the slaves of Allah to look at the signs of Allah in the universe — the earth, the heavens, everything in them and in between them — and to let that looking and pondering be the kind of reminder which benefits the believers.
I like the way in which some contemporary people called this method “the law of walking and looking,” because the Qur’an frequently tells man to travel in the land and see and learn from that. This could be either in the literal, physical sense or it may mean thinking and pondering.
The command to do this is given in general terms:
“Say: ‘Behold all that is in the heavens and the earth,’...” (Qur’an 10:101)
— and in specific terms:
“So let man see from what he is created!” (Qur ’an 86:5)
“Then let man look at his food.” (Qur’an 80:24)
How the Qur’an uses its aayaat (verses) to prove that the Creator is deserving of Lordship and Divinity and to prove the falseness of everything that Is worshipped Instead of Allah
The Qur’an takes the signs in the universe as material to debate with the mushrikeen (polytheists) and establish proof against them:
“Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were joined together as one united piece, then We parted them? And We have made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe? And We have placed on the earth firm mountains, lest it should shake with them, and We placed therein broad highways for them to pass through, that they may he guided. And We have made the heaven a roof, safe and well guarded. Yet they turn away from its signs [i.e. sun, moon, winds, clouds, etc.]. And He it is Who has created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon, each in an orbit floating.” (Qur’an 21:30-33)
He points out to them the corrupt nature of their belief in their gods who do not possess the attributes of Lordship (Ruboobiyah) and Divinity (Uloohiyah) which would qualify them to be deserving of worship and to be taken as gods instead of Allah (s.w.t);
“Say [O’ Muhammad]: ‘Praise and thanks be to Allah, and peace be on His slaves whom He has chosen [for His Message]! Is Allah better, or [all] that you ascribe as partners [to Him]?’ [Of course, Allah is better]. Is not He [better than your gods] Who created the heavens and the earth, and sends down for you water [rain] from the sky, whereby We cause to grow wonderful gardens full of beauty and delight? It is not in your ability to cause the growth of their trees. Is there any ilaah [god] with Allah? Nay, but they are a people who ascribe equals [to Him]! Is not He [better than your gods] Who has made the earth as a fixed abode, and has placed rivers in its midst, and has placed firm mountains therein, and has set a barrier between the two seas [of salt and sweet water]? Is there any ilaah [god] with Allah? Nay, but most of them know not! Is not He [better than your gods] Who responds to the distressed one, when he calls on Him, and Who removes the evil, and makes you inheritors of the earth, generations after generations? Is there any ilaah [god] with Allah? Little is that you remember! Is not He [better than your gods] Who guides you in the darkness of the land and the sea, and Who sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings, going before His Mercy [rain]? Is there any ilaah [god] with Allah? High Exalted be Allah above all that they associate as partners [to Him]! Is not He [better than your so-called gods] Who originates creation, and shall thereafter repeat it, and Who provides for you from heaven and earth? Is there any ilaah [god] with Allah? Say: ‘Bring forth your proofs, if you are truthful.” (Qur’an 27: 59-64)
These aayaat (verses) explain that their so-called gods are not fit to be worshipped, for Allah alone is the Creator of the heavens and the earth. Who sends down rain from the sky and brings forth the gardens which refresh the soul and are a delight to the eye. He is the One Who has made the earth as a fixed abode, and has placed rivers in its midst, and has placed firm mountains therein... He is the One Who is truly deserving of worship.
We must use this kind of evidence when confronting the disbelievers and atheists, for the Messengers have used this evidence before us to a great extent. Ibraaheem (Abraham)(a.s) (may peace be upon him), the close friend of Ar-Rahmaan (Allah, the All-Merciful), debated with that heretic and established proof against him by using this kind of evidence, thus dazzling him and rendering him speechless:
“Have you not looked at him who disputed with Ibraaheem about his Allah, because Allah had given him the kingdom? When Ibraaheem said [to him]: ‘My Allah is He Who gives life and causes death.’ He said, ‘I give life and cause death.’ Ibraaheem said, ‘Verily, Allah brings the sun from the east; then bring it you from the west.’ SO the disbeliever was utterly defeated. And Allah guides not the people, who are Zaalimoon [wrongdoers]. (Qur’an 2:258)
Moosa (Moses)(a.s),the one who spoke with Allah, used the same argument when he confronted the tyrant of his age, Fir’awn(Pharaoh). He kept producing evidence after evidence until Pharaoh could no longer put up an argument, whereupon he resorted to the use of threats:
“Fir‘awn [Pharaoh] said: ’And what is the Lord of the ‘Aalameen [mankind, jinn and all that exists]?’ Moosa [Moses] said: ‘The Lord of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, if you seek to be convinced with certainty.’ Pharaoh said to those around: ‘Do you not hear [what he says]?’ Moosa said: ‘Your Lord and the Lord of your ancient fathers! ’ [Pharaoh] said: ‘Verily, your Messenger who has been sent to you is a madman! ’ [Moosa] said: ‘Lord of the east and the west, and all that is between them, if you did but understand!’ [Pharaoh] said: ‘If you choose an ilaah [god] other than me, I will certainly put you among the prisoners.” (Qur’an 26: 23-29)
This way of producing evidence is the way of all the Messengers. Look at Soorah Ibraaheem [aayaat (verses) 9, 10] and read what the disbelieving people, the people of Nooh (Noah) (a.s) and ‘Aad and Thamood, and those who came after them, said, and see how the Messengers replied by saying:
“...Can there be a doubt about Allah, the Creator of the heavens and the earth? He calls you [to Monotheism and to be obedient to Allah] that He may forgive you of your sins...” (Qur’an 14: 10)
They proved the veracity of their call by referring to the fact that Allah (s.w.t), is the Creator of the heavens and the earth.
Kufr (disbelief) is reprehensible and strange in the face of such clear proof
Hence the Qur’an asks a question which indicates how strange it is that the disbelievers disbelieve when the proof and evidence are so clear:
“How can you disbelieve in Allah? Seeing that you were dead and He gave you life. Then He will give you death, then again will bring you to life [on the Day of Resurrection] and then unto Him you will return.” (Qur’an 2: 28)
In another aayah (verse), it asks:
“O’ man! What has made you careless about your Lord, the Most Generous? Who created you, fashioned you perfectly, and gave you due proportion. In whatever form He willed, He put you together.” (Qur’an 82:6-8)
When man looks at himself and at the universe around him, he cannot but turn to his Creator and glorify Him. Hence it is strange that the disbelievers disbelieve and deny that.
“What is the matter with you, that [you fear not Allah (His punishment), and] you hope not for reward [from Allah or you believe not in His Oneness]. While He has created you in [different] stages [i.e. first Nutfah, then ‘Alaqah and then Mudghah].See you not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another? And has made the moon a light therein, and made the sun a lamp? And Allah has brought you forth from the [dust of] earth? Afterwards He will return you into it [the earth], and bring you forth [again on the Day of Resurrection]?” (Qur’an 13-18)
iv) Those who benefit from the signs of the universe are those who have insight
The signs of Allah in the universe only become clear in all their inspiring reality to hearts which remember and worship Allah, because all veils have been removed from these hearts and they are open to the wonders of the universe. The Qur’an establishes this connection between human hearts and the rhythm of this immense and beautiful universe. This connection creates the insight that discovers the universe anew. This insight and discovery leave great impact on the human hearts and become so precious in the lives of the mankind. This connection is established by the Qur’an between understanding, leading and the man who learns and understands. Hence the Qur’an states that those who are guided by the signs of the universe are a certain type of people:
“Verily! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, there are indeed signs for men of understanding. Those who remember Allah [always, and in prayers] standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and think deeply about the creation of the heavens and the earth, [saying]: ‘Our Lord! You have not created [all] this without purpose, glory to You! [Exalted are You above all that they associate with You as partners]. Give us salvation from the torment of the Fire.” (Qur’an 3: 190-191)
These are the people who benefit from the signs of the universe, because they do not stop at the limit of the physical things that they can see; rather they look to the Hand that is running the universe and the Power that created it. They use their eyes, ears and minds in the best way in this matter, and they follow the guidance of the aayaat of the Qur’an, which help the ears, eyes and mind to understand the best that man can ever understand:
“And among His Signs is this, that He created for you wives from among yourselves, that you may find repose in them, and He has put between you affection and mercy. Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who reflect. And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the difference of your languages and colours. Verily, in that are indeed signs for men of sound knowledge. And among His Signs is your sleep by night and by day, and your seeking of His Bounty. Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who listen. And among His Signs is that He shows you the lightning, for fear and for hope, and He sends down water [rain] from the sky, and therewith revives the earth after its death. Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who understand.” (Qur’an 30: 21-24)
So the signs become clear to those who ponder, listen and have understanding in the right direction and lead them to their objective. The kuffaar (disbelievers), on the other hand, look at what happens, and their thoughts do not go beyond it, to the Creator. They do not understand the wisdom behind creation.
“They know only the outside appearance of the life of the world [i.e. the matters of their livelihood, like irrigating or sowing or reaping, etc.],...” (Qur’an 30: 7)
The disbelievers do not benefit from the universal signs, because they do not look at them through the lens of the Qur’an:
“Say: “Behold all that is in the heavens and the earth,” but neither Aayaat nor warners benefit those who believe not.” (Qur’an 10: 101)
The Qur’an denounces the disbelievers and the deniers for failing to look and learn:
“Do they not look in the dominion of the heavens and the earth and all things that Allah has created; and that it may be that the end of their lives is near. In what message after this will they then believe?” (Qur’an 7:185)
v) Modern sciences have severed the connection between mankind and the universe
Sayyid Qutb (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
“The methodology of the so-called modern ‘scientific’ studies has severed the connection which Allah (s.w.t), established between mankind and the universe in which they live.
Mankind is part of this universe, and their life cannot be sound or healthy unless their hearts beat with the rhythm of the universe and are connected to the rhythm of this great universe. There has to be a connection between their hearts and everything they learn about one of the stars or planets, or about the characteristics of plants and animals, or the characteristics of the entire universe in general, and the living and inanimate worlds that it contains — if indeed there are inanimate worlds — or there is anything inanimate in this universe!
All ‘scientific knowledge’ must attune itself immediately to the rhythm of the human heart and to an amicable relationship with this universe, so as to strengthen the bonds between humans and inanimate objects and living beings. Every kind of knowledge, science and research that falls short of this vital, inspiring, moving objective in human life is imperfect knowledge, false information or fruitless research.
This universe is an open book of truth which can be read in every language and understood by all means. It can be understood by ordinary people living in tents and huts, and by city-dwellers living in apartments and palaces. Each person can understand it according to his own level and potential, and find in it some support for the truth when he searches it with the purpose of finding the truth. It is open at all times.
“An insight and a Reminder for every slave who turns to Allah in repentance [i.e. the one who believes in the Oneness of Allah and performs deeds of His obedience, and always begs His Pardon].” (Qur’an 50:8)
But modem science extinguishes this deep insight and cuts the ties between human hearts and this universe which speaks the truth, because it is the work of people who have no insight and are dominated by the myth of ‘scientific method,’ the method which cuts the ties between the universe and the creatures who live in it.
The methodology of faith does not detract from the results of the ‘scientific methods’ in understanding facts, but it adds the idea of connecting these facts to one another and referring them to the greater realities, and connecting the human heart to them, i.e., to the laws and realities of the universe, turning these laws and realities into moving rhythms that will stir people’s emotions, not dry facts residing in their minds that disclose nothing of its beautiful mysteries. The methodology of faith is that which must take over in the field of study and research so that the facts that are discovered will have this strong connection…”
vi) Evidence in creation of the attributes of the Creator
If we look at a machine which is beautifully crafted with great precision, strong and solidly constructed, doing its job in the best possible way, we will realize, with the minimum of mental effort, that its maker is alive and knowledgeable, and that he is possessed of power and will... and other attributes which the machine informs us of
This universe tells us of many of the attributes of its Creator, such as:
His Power and Knowledge: This vast, immense, huge universe which is running according to a precise system must have been made by One Who is All-Powerful and All-Knowing. Allah (s.w.t), created the universe in this huge form and created this perfect system to tell us of His power and knowledge.
“It is Allah Who has created seven heavens and of the earth the Iike thereof [i.e. seven]. His Command descends between them [heavens and earth], that you may know that Allah has power over all things, and that Allah surrounds all things in [His] Knowledge.” (Qur’an 65:12)
The knowledge which controls this universe must be perfect and all- encompassing:
“...And He knows whatever there is in the land and in the sea; not a leaf falls, but He knows it. There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record.” (Qur’an 6: 59)
He is Wise: Looking at this universe we find that it is well made with everything in its rightful place, created in the right proportions, in the most perfect and precise manner.
“And you will see the mountains and think them solid, but they shall pass away as the passing away of the clouds. The Work of Allah, Who perfected all things,…” (Qur’an 27:88)
“Who made everything He has created good and He began the creation of man from clay. (Qur’an 32:7)
The one who looks closely at the creation of Allah will not find anything but perfection and precision, and if he looks for any fault in creation he will not find it.
“Who has created the seven heavens one above another; you can see no fault in the creation of the Most Gracious. Then look again: ‘Can you see any rifts?’ Then look again and yet again, your sight will return to you in a state of humiliation and worn out." (Qur’an 67: 3-4)
Other attributes: What we have said about the universe indicating the attributes of the Creator is by way of example; we have not listed everything. These examples pave the way for further research and investigation, for in the universe there are many signs that point to the greatness, might and kindness of Allah. Listen to the Divine attributes which Allah (s.w.t), mentions at the end of each of these aayaat (verses):
“See you not that Allah sends down water [rain] from the sky, and then the earth becomes green? Verily, Allah is the Most Kind and Courteous, Well-Acquainted with all things. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth. And verily, Allah He is Rich [Free of all needs]. Worthy of all praise. See you not that Allah has subjected to you [mankind] all that is on the earth, and the ships that sail through the sea by His Command? He withholds the heaven from falling on the earth except by His Leave. Verily, Allah is, for mankind, full of kindness. Most Merciful.” (Qur’an 22: 63-65)
vii) Allah is the Only One Who is deserving of worship
Looking at and contemplating the signs of the universe leads us to worship Allah alone, for Allah alone is the Creator, the Controller, the Sustainer of the heavens and the earth, the Provider, the Giver of life and death. Hence He, and no one else, is deserving of worship.
“O’ mankind! Worship your Lord [Allah], Who created you and those who were before you so that you may become Al-Muttaqoon. Who has made the earth a resting place for you, and the sky as a canopy, and sent down water [rain] from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unto Allah [in worship] while you know [that He Alone has the right to be worshipped].” (Qur’an 2: 21-22)
“O’ mankind! Remember the Grace of Allah upon you! Is there any creator other than Allah who provides for you from the sky [rain] and the earth? Laa ilaaha illa Huwa [none has the right to be worshipped but He]. How then are you turning away [from Him]? (Qur’an 35: 3)
In this manner - as we have stated above - the Qur’an proves the falsity of other so-called gods and that they do not deserve any kind of worship at all.
“He has created the heavens without any pillars that you see, and has set on the earth firm mountains lest it should shake with you. And He has scattered therein moving [living] creatures of all kinds. And We send down water [rain] from the sky, and We cause [plants] of every goodly kind to grow therein. This is the creation of Allah. So show Me that which those [whom you worship] besides Him have created. Nay, the Zaalimoon [polytheists, wrongdoers and those who do not believe in the Oneness of Allah] are in plain error.” (Qur’an 31: 10-11)
Thus Allah (s.w.t), reminds His creation, through the universal signs and the way in which He controls all their affairs. In many aayaat of the Qur’an, He follows that by saying: “Such is Allah your Lord” (Qur’an 39: 6), i.e., this is the God besides Whom none is deserving of worship.
Listen to these aayaat (verses) and then ponder the ending of each aayah:
“He has created the heavens and the earth with truth. He makes the night to go in the day and makes the day to go in the night. And He has subjected the sun and the moon. Each running [on a fixed course] for an appointed term. Verily, He is the All-Mighty, the Oft-Forgiving. He created yon [all] from a single person [Adam]; then made from him his wife [Hawwa’ (Eve)]. And He has sent down for you of cattle eight pairs [of the sheep, two, male and female; of the goats, two, male and female; of the oxen, two, male and female; and of the camels, two, male and female]. He creates you in the wombs of your mothers, creation after creation in three veils of darkness. Such is Allah your Lord. His is the kingdom. Laa ilaaha illa Huwa [none has the right to be worshipped but He]. How then are you turned away?” (Qur’an 39: 5-6)