v) How Allah guides the hoopoe, and the wonders of its creation
Ibn al-Qayyim tells us, in his eloquent manner, of another of Allah’s creatures which is mentioned in the Book of Allah, the hoopoe. Ibn al-Qayyim speaks of how Allah (s.w.t), guides and inspires it:
“The hoopoe is one of the most guided of animals, and the most able to see where water is located beneath the ground, which others cannot see. One of the ways in which it is guided is what Allah tells us in the Qur’an, where He tells us what the hoopoe said to the Prophet of Allah Sulaymaan (Solomon) (a.s), who had threatened him when he could not find him. When the hoopoe came, he immediately gave his excuse, before Sulaymaan could threaten him with the punishment. He addressed him in a manner that encouraged him to listen and accept what he said. He said:
“…I have grasped [the knowledge of a thing] which you have not grasped...” (Qur’an 27: 22),
— which implied: I have brought you (news of) something which I know very well, and it is important and serious. Hence he said:
“…And I have come to you from Saba’ [Sheba] with true news.” (Qur’an27:22).
This was important news, which was worth knowing. Then he described it as true news, with no element of doubt. This was his preamble to his telling the Prophet of Allah the news, so that he would forget everything else and focus only on this news. It made him eager to hear it and find out what it was. This is an eloquent way of introducing something and making people listen.
Then he (hoopoe - hud hud) started to tell him the news in an affirmative manner, and said:
“I found a woman ruling over them...”(Qur’an 27: 23).
Then he described the status of that queen, and that she was one of the greatest monarchs because she had been given everything that is fit for rulers. Then he added further detail of her high status by describing the throne on which she sat, which was a mighty throne. Then he told him why he should go and deal with these people and attack them in their own land after calling them to Allah. He said:
“I found her and her people worshipping the sun instead of Allah,...” (Qur’an27: 24).
The conjunction wa (“and”) is omitted here; this sentence is made independent and is not connected to the previous sentence, in order to indicate that this is the main point and that what was said before was merely an introduction. Then he pointed out what had tempted and motivated them to do that, which was the way in which the Shaytaan (Satan) had made their deeds fair-seeing to them and had barred them from the right way, prostrate to Allah Alone, for none is deserving of prostration except Him.
Then he mentioned that one of the things which Allah (s.w.t) does is to bring to light what is hidden in the heavens and the earth, i.e., things which are concealed such as rain, plants, minerals and other kinds of things that come down from the sky or come forth from the earth. When the hoopoe mentioned that Allah Alone does these things, he was also referring to the special talent which Allah (s.w.t) had bestowed upon him, which was the ability to detect water below the ground.
The author of Al-Kashshaaf said: The phrase ‘bringing to light what is hidden’ indicates that this is part of what the hoopoe said, because of his skill in knowing where water is hidden beneath the ground, which is due to the inspiration of the One Who brings to light what is hidden in the heavens and the earth, Glorified be He. The one who has insight and is guided by the light of Allah can hardly miss the fact that each person is influenced by his particular craft or branch of knowledge, which affects the way he speaks and thinks. No human does any kind of work, but Allah clothes him in the dress of that work (i.e., it shows in his features and characteristics).”
vi) How pigeons are guided, and the wonders of their creation
When Ibn al-Qayyim describes the wonders of the pigeon’s creation and how Allah (s.w.t), inspires it, he speaks at length in the most fascinating manner, which indicates that pondering Allah’s creation is a method which the scholars take upon themselves in order to fulfil Allah’s command to His slaves.
Concerning this Ibn al-Qayyim said:
“The pigeon is one of the most amazingly guided animals. Ash- Shaafa‘i said: the wisest of birds is the pigeon, and the carrier pigeon is the one which brings messages and letters and may be worth more than a slave, for the service that it provides cannot be carried out by slaves, or by any other kinds of creature. It travels huge distances and brings news and other things which states and kingdoms need.
Those who care for and breed pigeons pay a great deal of attention to their bloodlines. They separate males and females during the mating season, taking the males to different females and vice versa, and fearing that their bloodlines may become corrupted. They are always afraid that the females may attract males of the common type of pigeon, thus corrupting the bloodline. Those who care for pigeons do not pay as much attention to the conduct of their own womenfolk or take as many precautions to protect them as they do for their pigeons.
Their carers have rules and methods to which they pay a great deal of attention, so that if a pigeon suddenly lands, there will be no mystery as to its pedigree and country of origin. They respect the person who has experience and knowledge in this field, and they treat him very generously indeed.
Only males are selected for carrying letters and messages, and they say that he longs more for his home because his mate is there, and he is physically stronger and has a better sense of direction, Others prefer females for this task, and say that if a male is kept away for too long, he will long for a mate, so he might see a female on his route and not be able to keep away from her, so he will forget about travelling and will want to stay with his new mate.
Pigeons can be trained, and they are regarded as a good omen and are used to people. They like people and people like them. When they get used to a place, they will stay there and remain loyal to their owner, even if he mistreats them. They will return there from long distances, and if they are prevented from doing so, they will remain loyal even if ten years have passed since they left their homeland, and as soon as the opportunity arises and they are able to do so, they will return.
When the male pigeon wants to mate, he approaches the female with the utmost gentleness, Once he realizes that the female may have conceived, he and his mate look for straw, grass and small twigs, with which they build a nest, by weaving together these materials. They give the nest a raised edge, so that the eggs will not roll out, and so it will provide a safe place for the young. Then they take turns sitting on the nest, to keep it warm and to replace its original smell with a new, pleasant smell which is derived from their own bodies and scents, so that when the eggs are laid they will he in a place that is similar to the womb, and there will be the right balance between heat and cold, softness and hardness.
Then when “labour” starts, the bird hastens to that place (the nest) and lays its eggs in it. If it is startled by thunder, it throws the egg out of the nest that it has prepared, just like when a woman miscarries out of fright.
When the eggs are laid, the pair keep on taking turns sitting on the nest, until the time for brooding is over and the chick starts to break out of the egg. The parents help it to emerge, then they blow air into its throat so that its crop will become bigger, because they know that the crop is too small for food until it has been widened in this manner.
But they also know that even after the crop has been widened, it is still too small for food, so they feed it with saliva mixed with food, which has a strong taste.
They also know that the crop cannot continually take in food, and that it needs to gain strength, so they pick up soft grains from ponds and feed them to the chick, then they move on to giving it stronger food. They keep on feeding it with grains and water in stages, according to the chick’s strength, and demands food from them, until they know that he is able to pick up food by itself Then they gradually stop feeding it so that he gets used to picking up food. When they know that its lungs have developed and grown strong, they wean it so that it can fend for himself, and they hit it if it asks for food after that. Then they no longer feel that amazing compassion, once they know that it is able to fend by itself.
Among the wonders of the way in which the pigeon is inspired is that when it is carrying a message, it follows remote routes, far from cities where people are to be found, so that no one will be able to detain it. It does not look for water among people, rather it seeks out water where people do not go.
Male and female pigeons share out their duties towards the chicks. Caring for and raising the chick is done by the female, and bringing food and feeding it to the chick are done by the male. The father is the head of the family who provides for them, and the mother is the one who gives birth and nurses the young.
Among the wonders of pigeons is that which was mentioned by Al- Jaahiz, who said: a man had a pair of pigeons whose wings had been clipped, and another pair which could fly. The pair which could fly had chicks. He said: I made a hole for them at the top of their coop so that they could go out and come in and feed their chicks. I was detained unexpectedly by some government officials, and I became very concerned about the birds whose wings were clipped. I was certain that they would have died, because they could not get out of the hole, and they had nothing to eat or drink. When I was let go, I did not care about anything except (these birds). I opened the door and found that the chicks had matured, and the pair with clipped wings were in the best of health. I was amazed. It was not long before the pair who could fly came back and came to the pair who could not fly; the latter were asking for food like chicks, and the former fed them.
Look at the way they are guided. The pair who could not fly saw how the chicks asked their parents for food when they became hungry and thirsty, so they did the same as the chicks did. The pair who could fly took pity on them and fed them as they fed their own chicks.
Another amazing thing about pigeons is that when they are flying and they see people from the air, they know which type of people they want to go to, and they know which is the opposite type. When pigeons first begin to fly, they are heedless and they will fly among vultures, eagles, falcons, crows and hawks, and they know which ones will pursue them and which will not. But if a pigeon sees an Indian falcon (shaheen), it is as if it has seen a lethal poison; it starts to panic like a sheep when it sees a wolf, or a donkey when it sees a lion.
More about the wonders of Allah’s creation
Ibn al-Qayyim also tells us about other wonders of Allah’s creation and how He inspires His creatures which the scholars of his time had noted, such as the following:
vii) A dog which nursed a child whose family had died
Al-Jaahiz said: When the plague had killed the members of a household, the people of that area were certain that no one was left alive among them, so they went and sealed the door of the house. But there was an infant boy left who was still suckling, and they overlooked him. After a while, some of the heirs went to that house and opened the door. When they entered the middle of the house, they were astounded to see a young boy playing with some pups belonging to the dog that had lived with the family. It was not long before they saw the dog that had belonged to the family. When the child saw her, he crawled over to her and she let him suckle from her. When the child had gotten hungry and had seen the pups suckling, he had crawled over to them. The mother dog had taken pity on him and let him suckle, and when she had done that once, she continued to let him suckle, and he had kept asking for it.
viii) The whistling bird kills the viper
Ibn al-A‘raabi said that a snake ate the eggs of a whistling bird, and the bird started screeching and flying at the snake’s head, until the snake opened its mouth. Then the bird threw a fish spine into its mouth, and it Shrek in the snake’s throat until it died.
ix) The cunning of the fox
Among the amazing features of the fox is that when it gets infested with fleas, it takes a piece of wool in its mouth then goes to some shallow water, where it submerges itself gradually until the fleas jump onto that piece of wool. Then it lets the wool go and comes out of the water.
Another of its amazing features is that once a wolf ate the young of a fox, and the wolf also had young. There was an enclosed place like a pitfall nearby, so the fox went there and dug a tunnel to get out, then it went to the wolf and killed its young, then sat down and waited for him. When the wolf came back and realized that it was the fox that had done this, he started to chase him. The fox threw himself into that pitfall, then escaped through the tunnel. The wolf threw himself in after him, but he could not find him and he could not escape. Then the people who lived nearby came and killed him.
Once there was a man who had two chickens. The fox hid from him and snatched one, then ran away. Then he thought about how he could get the other chicken. He presented himself to the man from a distance, with something in his mouth that looked like a bird. By dropping it and running away, he made the man think it was his chicken. When the man rushed towards it, the fox doubled back and took the other chicken, then ran away.
Once a fox came to an island on which there were birds, and he tried hard to catch one of them, but he could not. Then he went and brought a bunch of grass which he threw into the water which was flowing towards the island, and the birds were afraid of it, but when they realized that it was only grass, they settled down again. The fox did this again, a second time, and a third and a fourth, until the birds got used to it. Then he brought a bigger bunch of grass and hid in it, and went over to where the birds were. The birds were sure that it was the same as the previous bunches of grass, so they did not fly away from it. Then the fox pounced on a bird and devoured it.
When the fox is starving, its body swells up, then it goes and throws itself down in the desert, as if it is dead. Birds come to see what it is, and it appears to be neither moving nor breathing. The birds are sure that it is dead, and when they start to peck at it, the fox pounces and kills them.
When a fox comes across a hedgehog, it flips it onto its back because of its spines, and it curls itself up into a ball. Then the fox urinates on the hedgehog’s belly, which makes it uncurl, and the fox grabs it by the belly, separates the meat from the spiny skin and eats it.
x) The wonders of the wolf
Once a wolf attacked a man and wanted to kill him, but he saw that the man had a bow and arrows. He went and got the skull of a camel, and faced the man, holding it in his mouth. Every time the man shot an arrow at him, he deflected it with that skull, until the man was worn out. When the man realized that his arrows had run out, he called someone else to help him drive the wolf away.
xi) The wonders of monkeys
Bukhari mentioned in his saheeh that ‘Amr ibn Maymoon al-Awdi said: During the Jaahiliyah (Pre-Islamic period), I saw a male monkey and a female monkey committing zinaa. The other monkeys gathered together and stoned them to death. These monkeys upheld the limits of Allah when the sons of Adam were neglecting them.
xii) The wonders of cows
Cows are proverbially seen as being slow and stupid, but the Prophet (s.a.w) said:
“Whilst a man was driving a cow, he rode on it, and she said, I was not created for this.’” The people said, “Subhaan Allah! Can a cow speak?” He said: “I believe it and Abu Bakr and ‘Umar believe it, and that is enough.”
And he said: “Whilst a man was tending his sheep, the wolf attacked a ewe, and he saved her. The wolf said: ‘You saved her from me, but who will save her on the day of the carnivores, the day when she will have no other shepherd but me?”’ The people said, “Subhaan Allah! Can a wolf talk?” The Messenger of Allah (s.w.t) said:
“I believe it and Abu Bakr and ‘Umar believe it, and that is enough.”
xiii) The wonders of mice
Among the wonders of mice is that if a mouse drinks oil from the ton of a vessel, then the level of the oil drops and it can no longer reach it. it goes and gets a mouthful of water, ft then pours into the vessel, so that the level of oil will come up again and it can drink some more.
xiv) Some animals use medicine
Doctors claim that the idea of using enemas was taken from a kind of bird that has a long beak. If it is finding it difficult to defecate, it goes to salty water, takes some water in its beak, and gives itself an enema, then the droppings are passed quickly.
When weasels and hedgehogs eat snakes, they go and eat crabs, as a kind of medicine for that.
When the fox suffers a headache or a wound, it goes to a certain kind of dye and puts it on the wound like a kind of ointment. When the bear suffers a wound, it goes to a plant which is known to it, but is unknown to the herbalists, and treats itself with it, and it gets better.
xv) How people learn from animals
Many wise people learn things from “dumb” animals that are of use to them in their daily lives, their attitudes, their work and in war; they learn resolution and patience. Animals are more and more guided than many people.
Allah (s.w.t), says:
“Or do you think that most of them hear or understand? They are only like cattle nay, they are even farther astray from the Path.”(Qur’an 25: 44)
Abu Ja‘far al-Baaqir said: Allah (s.w.t), did not only liken them to cattle. He said that they are more misguided than the animals. One of the ways in which female carnivores are guided is that when they give birth to their young, they keep picking them up for the first few days to protect them from ants, because when they are born they are like pieces of meat. The mother is afraid that the ants will harm the young, so she keeps picking them up and moving them from one place to another, until they become stronger.
Ibn al-A‘raabi said: It was said to a shaykh of Quraysh: Who taught you all of this, for what you know is known only to people who have experience and who have engaged in trade? He said: Allah taught me what He taught the pigeon, which turns its eggs so that both sides will have an equal share of her warmth and care, lest the earth damage the egg if it is left on one side.
It was said to another: who taught you to persist and persevere in seeking what you want, even if at first you do not succeed, until you get it? He said: the One Who taught the dung beetle, when it climbs a wall and falls off, to keep on climbing again and again, until it manages to reach the top of the wall.
It was said to another: who taught you to set out early in the day to do your business, and never to miss a day? He said, the One Who taught the bird to set out hungry each morning seeking its food near and far, and never to get tired or to fear an attack in the air or on land.
It was said to another: who taught you to be so calm, quiet and reserved until you see what you want, then when you get the chance you pounce like a lion attacking its prey? He said: the One Who taught the cat to watch the mouse’s hole and not to move a muscle, but to remain immobile as if dead, until the mouse comes out, whereupon it pounces like a lion.
It was said to another: who taught you to be so patient and forbearing? He said: the One Who taught the camel to be so patient even when carrying these heavy burdens, and to put up with the long marches, exhaustion and harshness and beatings of the camel-driver, with the heavy burden and everything on his back and the bitterness of hunger and thirst in his stomach. Even though he is so tired and utterly exhausted, this does not make him lose his patience.
It was said to another; who taught you to prefer others to yourself and to be so generous? He said; the One Who taught the rooster, when he finds a grain on the ground, not to eat it although he needs it, but instead to call the hens to come, until one comes and picks up the grain, and the rooster is happy with that. And when a lot of grain is put out for him, he scatters it here and there even if there are no hens around, because his nature is to prefer others over himself and to be generous, and he thinks it is miserly to keep food for himself.
It was said to another: who taught you to be so smart in seeking provision and earning a living? He said, the One Who taught the fox all these tricks which even wise men are unable to learn and to do. For the fox’s tricks are too many to be counted.
Who taught the lion, when it is walking and is afraid that hunters may follow its tracks and come after it, to erase its tracks with its tail? Who taught him to come to his cub three days after it is born, to breathe into its nose? For when the lioness gives birth to it, it is like a dead puppy, and she keeps looking after it until its father comes and does that.
Who inspired the noblest of lions not to eat from any prey except its own? For if it passes by the prey of any other animal, it will not go near it even if it is starving.
Who taught the female elephant, when the time to give birth approaches, to go and give birth in the water? For the elephant is the only animal which gives birth standing up, because its joints are not like the joints of other animals and it is very tall, so it is afraid that if it gives birth on land, the infant will be harmed by the fall. So she goes to water which is not too deep, and gives birth there, so it will be like a soft bed.
Who taught the fly, when it falls into some liquid, to keep the wing on which the cure is out of the water?
Who taught the dog, when it sees the gazelles, to know which ones are sickly, and which one is the male? For it goes after males, even though it knows that they can run and jump faster and are stronger, and it leaves the females alone even though they are weaker. The dog knows that if the male runs for a while, its bladder will fill, for when any animal is scared, its bladder fills. When the male gazelle needs to urinate, it cannot do so when it is running so fast, so it slows down, and then the dog catches it. The females, on the other hand, are able to urinate whilst running because their urethras are wider and it is easier for them, so they keep on running.
Who taught it, when the ground is covered with snow, to look for a place where the snow is thinner and has melted a little, creating a slight depression in its surface? For it knows that there is a rabbit warren under this spot, so it digs it out and hunts the rabbits, because it knows that the heat of the rabbits’ breath has melted the snow and made it thinner.
Who taught the wolf, when it sleeps, to sleep with one eye open? So it sleeps with one eye open, until that eye becomes drowsy, then it opens the sleeping eye.
Who taught the birds, if a chick falls from the nest, to call for help, so that other birds in the area gather around it and fly around it, until it is motivated by their actions and gains the strength to get up and fly with them?
A hunter said that one day he saw a bird on a wall, so he waved his hand as if throwing something, and the bird did not move. Then he bent down as if to pick up something from the ground, and it did not move. Then he touched the smallest pebble or date stone, and the bird flew away before he could pick it up.
Who taught a certain type of spider to stay close to the ground and remain immobile so that the fly will think that it is preoccupied, then it pounces upon it like a leopard?
Who taught the spider to make its web so fine and strong, then to make a thread at the top and hang from it, then when a mosquito gets caught in the web it drops down to it and comes to hunt it?
Who taught the gazelle only to enter its home backwards, so that it can face whatever it fears may harm it or its offspring?
Who taught the cat, when it sees a mouse on the roof, to raise its head towards it as if pointing to it with a stick, then move its head back and forth until the mouse is distracted and falls?
Who taught the jerboa to dig its house in the sides of the valley so that it will be above the flood level and will be safe from the hooves of cattle or water flowing through? It makes its tunnels deep, then it makes numerous doors in them. It makes a thin barrier between it and the surface of the earth, so that when it senses danger, it can open one of these doors easily and escape. Because it is very forgetful, it only builds its home near a rock which will serve as a guidepost pointing to its home if it loses its way.
Who taught the leopard when it gets fat to stay out of sight because it is too heavy to move, until it loses that fat, whereupon it emerges again?
Who taught the stag, when its antlers fall off, to stay out of sight because it has lost its weapon and it gains weight as a result? Then when its antlers have grown again, it comes out into the sun and wind and starts to move around a lot. This makes its muscles grow strong again, and it loses the fat that prevented it from running.
This is a vast topic. It suffices us to quote the words of Allah (s.w.t)
“There is not a moving [living] creature on earth, nor a bird that flies with its two wings, but are communities like you. We have neglected nothing in the Book, then unto their Lord they [all] shall be gathered. Those who reject Our aayaat [proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.] are deaf and dumb in the darkness. Allah sends astray whom He wills and He guides on the Straight Path whom He wills.” (Qur’an 6: 38-39)
Ways in which humans are likened to animals
Ibn ‘Abbaas says, according to a report narrated by ‘Ataa’:”...but are communities like you...” (Qur’an 6: 38). [Allah] means: they recognize Me, affirm My Unity, glorify Me and praise Me. This is like the aayah (verse):
“...And there is not a thing but glorifies His Praise “(Qur’an 17 :44)
“See you not [O’ Muhammad] that Allah, He it is Whom glorify whosoever is in the heavens and the earth, and the birds with wings outspread [in their flight]? Of each one He [Allah] knows indeed his salaah [prayer] and his glorification [or everyone knows his salaah (prayer) and his glorification]...” (Qur’an 24: 41)
This is also referred to in the following verses:
“See you not that whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth, and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the mountains, and the trees, and Ad-Dawaabb [moving (living) creatures, beasts],...” (Qur’an 22: 18)
“And to Allah prostrate all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth, of the moving [living] creatures and the angels, and they are not proud [i.e. they worship their Lord (Allah) with humility].” (Qur’an 16: 49)
“…’O’ you mountains. Glorify [Allah] with him! And you birds [also]!...” (Qur’an 34: 10)
“And your Lord inspired the bees,...” (Qur’an 16: 68)
“…One of the ants said: ‘O’ ants!...” (Qur’an 27:18)
“[Sulaymaan (Solomon) said:] ‘…We have been taught the language of birds,...’” (Qur’an 27:16)
Mujahid said, ‘Communities like you’ (means) species and categories which you know by their names. Az-Zajjaj said, ’Communities like you’ means, ‘In that they will be resurrected.’
Ibn Qutaybah said; ‘Communities like you’ means, ‘In that they search for food, seek provision and try to protect themselves from danger.’
Sufyaan ibn ‘Uyaynah said: there is no human being on earth who does not resemble animals in some way. Some crush the heads of their victims like lions; some run like wolves; some bark like dogs; and some flaunt themselves like peacocks. Some people resemble pigs in that if you offer them good food they will not touch it, but if a man gets up from defecating, they will come and roll in it. Hence you find some people who, if they hear fifty words of wisdom they will not remember anything of that, but if a man does one thing wrong, that will stay in their memory.
Al-Khattaabi said: how well Sufyaan understood this aayah (verse) and reached this wise conclusion. That is if a statement could not be interpreted literally, it should be interpreted according to the subtle meaning to which it refers. Allah has told us of the similarities between men and every kind of bird and beast; this cannot be taken in the physical sense or in the sense of speech and knowledge, so it must be interpreted as a resemblance in terms of characteristics and attitude.
Allah (s.w.t), has made some animals smart and resourceful, and others relaxed and trusting. Some insects store a year’s worth of food for themselves, and others rely on the fact that daily provision is guaranteed for them. Some do not know their offspring at all; some look after their own offspring but no others; some neglect their own offspring and care for the offspring of others; some never acknowledge their offspring once they become independent. Some creatures save whilst others have no means of earning. Some care for their offspring and never lose touch with them.
Some animals do not seek to produce offspring, whilst others devote all their time and effort to having children. Some recognize and appreciate kind treatment, whilst for others it does not mean a thing. Some prefer others to themselves, whilst others, if they gain enough to provide for an entire community of their species, will not let any other individual come near it.
Some animals like humans and feel at home with them, whilst others are very nervous of man. Some eat only good and pure things whilst others eat filth and yet others eat both.
Some animals will not harm unless severely provoked, whilst others will hurt without provocation. Some bear grudges and never forget if someone hurts them, whilst others do not remember at all. Some never get angry, whilst others get angry quickly and are not easily calmed. Some have very precise knowledge of things which most people know nothing about, and some do not know about anything at all. Some are able to detect and avoid things which are ugly or bad, and for others good and bad are the same, Some learn quickly, some learn slowly, and some never learn.
All of this points to the Creator and how wise and perfect He is in His creation. It shows how wonderful is the knowledge which He has instilled in His creation, how subtle the stratagems, how precise the management, how patient His creatures are in the pursuit of their goals. All of this makes us glorify Allah. It fills our hearts with knowledge of Allah and His wisdom and power. What every rational being knows is that He did not create all this in vain and He does not neglect His creation. In all that He creates He has the clearest wisdom and definitive proof, which indicates that He is the Lord and Sovereign of all things, that He alone is perfect, and that He is able to do all things and knows all things.
xvi) How the Creator guides living beings to multiply
Dr. Yusuf Izz Uddeen explains this topic as follows:
“Among the amazing things which all living beings have in common is the ability to multiply, to produce offspring which will ensure the continuation of the species and that it will not become extinct.
The act of reproducing is accomplished by different means in different creatures, but they all reach the intended goal. Bacteria (which are kinds of plants) multiply, as do all other kinds of plants and animals, according to their various levels. From a mathematical point of view, it is impossible that a series of accidental events could have led to the appearance of males and females in thousands of plants and animals to serve a specific purpose, which is the production of offspring to protect the species from extinction.
There are some plants and animals in which there is no distinction between males and females, but they still multiply and produce offspring. Tiny primitive animals such as the amoeba, which lives in water and whose body consists of a single cell, multiply in an amazing fashion. One amoeba divides into two parts, each of which turns into an amoeba. The creatures formed by this cell division divide into two in turn, and so on. This happens when the circumstances of life are suitable.
But if this creature feels any sense of danger, it creates a bubble around itself and divides into two, and into tens of new creatures inside that bubble, so as to make up for the time which it may otherwise have wasted inside the bubble waiting for circumstances to return to normal.
Multiplication by division occurs in numerous other primitive animals apart from the amoeba, such as the animal called a paramecium, which also lives in water and also multiplies by dividing into two in suitable circumstances, like the amoeba. But from time to time when it needs to renew its energy and vitality, it resorts to another kind of reproduction which is very complicated. It mobilizes its nucleus (and every cell has a nucleus, as is well known) to make every cell divide into four, instead of only two.
In animals which are superior to these primitive animals, if circumstances prevent females from mating with males in order to produce offspring, the animal becomes both male and female, i.e., it becomes a hermaphrodite, with both female and male reproductive organs side by side in its body. Thus it is able to produce offspring without having to wait for the opportune for the two sexes to come together. This happens, for example, in the case of the liver-worm which lives in the ducts of the gall-bladder of some animals, where it is very difficult for them to move about in this constricted space to seek out the other sex. At the same time, if it so happens that two of these worms are able to fertilize one another, one will become like the female and the other will become like the male.
The notion that millions of accidents happened at the same time and served a specific, common goal in many different species and in many different ways is something that is inconceivable by scientific and mathematical standards. In this case we have no option but to accept the existence of an active, creative power behind all of this.
From the time of the first appearance of mammals on earth, the female was equipped to produce milk which would guarantee nourishment for the young as soon as they emerged from the mother’s womb. If these mammary glands, which protrude from the mother’s body, had not existed from the first moment that mammals appeared, the young would have had no chance to grow and survive. This is something that has been decreed and decided from the beginning, and is not subject to trial and error because there is no room for even the slightest mistake.
Can any rational person imagine that this provision of food for the newborn would happen as the result of blind chance? The milk of female mammals, in addition to providing nourishment, has also been found to contain materials which give the newborn immunity against diseases until it grows stronger and its body is able to protect itself All efforts to manufacture the milk needed to nourish newborns have failed to produce milk that has the same characteristics as the milk that Allah has supplied to the female.”
The Importance of the sexual instinct
Dr. Yusuf also tells us about the sexual instinct and its importance and impact. He says:
“Among the things that puzzle scientists is the sexual instinct, which makes males attracted to females and vice versa.
The sexual instinct is the strongest of instincts, because it is the most important for ensuring the survival of the species and protecting it from extinction. The main purpose in life for some animals is to mate and perpetuate the species, and they die immediately after that.
The complete life cycle of the insect known as the may-fly is no more than a few days. During its entire life cycle it does not eat, because it is not equipped with a mouth at all. Its primary role during this short period of time is to mate and produce offspring. The mother dies as soon as she has fulfilled her role, and the father dies likewise.”
xvii) How the Creator causes animals to make up for lost parts of their bodies
In his articles in Al-Ahraam newspaper, Dr. Yusuf discusses the characteristic which Allah (s.w.t), has bestowed upon His creatures, whereby they are able to make up for any part of their bodies that they lose:
“Among the other amazing features that we see in all animals and plants is the ability to make up for missing body parts. We find this ability, to one degree or another, in different living beings.
In many animals such as that which Is called the hydra, we find an amazing feature which science can only describe, but it cannot explain. This animal lives in water and takes the form of a tube which is no more than a few millimeters in length. The tribe is closed at the bottom and is open at the top. This opening serves as a mouth to take in food, and it is also used to expel waste matter. Around this mouth there are a number of hollow tentacles which are connected to the hollow tube inside its body.
If we cut this animal into two, an upper half and a lower half, we find that some cells in each half multiply to complete the part that is missing, and the result is two animals which look like the original. But it does not stop there. If we cut the animal into several pieces, each piece will grow and will make up the missing parts, and will become a perfectly formed animal.
The walls of the hydra’s body are composed of two layers of cells, an outer layer and an inner layer which surrounds the hollow space inside its body. In each layer there are different types of cells, each of which performs a specific function. Most of the cells in the outer layer serve to protect the body, whilst the main function of the inner cells is to digest the food which the animal swallows through its mouth opening.
If we turn this animal inside-out, like a sock, so that the outer cells are on the inside surrounding its hollow centre, and the cells which were inside are now on the outside, what happens? The scientists who carried out this experiment discovered that the cells which are now on the outside migrate towards the inside, and the cells which are now on the inside migrate towards the outside, so that the animal will go back to the way it was. If this did not happen, the animal would die, because the cells which surround its hollow middle have to be digestive cells which can process the food in the animal’s hollow middle. At the same time, the cells which are on the outside have to be protective cells which can defend the animal’s body.
If an earthworm is cut in half, each half will grow, and will make up for the missing parts.
In other animals, such as the shrimp and others, if it loses one of its legs, it grows a new leg to replace the lost limb. If the wall gecko senses danger or a person or animal grabs it by the tail, it will detach that tail from its body and escape from the danger, and it grows a new tail.
If we humans cut ourselves when shaving or for any other reason, new cells form to replace the cells that are lost. If that did not happen, it would be impossible to perform surgery.
If we break a bone, new cells form and the break heals.
This could not have happened as the result of an accident. It has to be the result of a plan aimed at a specific goal, which is the preservation of the life of the individual. It is controlled by inner forces residing in the animal, the nature of which is not fully understood by science. It is a force which Allah has created in animals, but the animal knows nothing of it and does not know what it is doing.”
xviii) All living beings have the function of breathing in common, although they achieve it in different ways
Dr. Yusuf also discusses this topic in his valuable articles, where he says:
“The function of breathing, which we find in all living creatures from the lowest to the highest, is an amazing process. In all cases it is simply the process of oxidization, i.e., the union of oxygen with nutrients in the cells of the body, which results in the release of energy which the organism needs and without which it would not be able to undertake any of its activities.
This oxidization takes place in different ways in different animals, but in all cases the result is the same: the release of energy. At the same time, water and carbon dioxide are formed as a result of this process. So the main stages of breathing are the intake of oxygen needed to oxidize the nutrients and the release of carbon dioxide and water as a result of this process.
In simple animals like the amoeba, where the body consists of a single cell, the process of breathing is completed in a very simple manner. The creature that looks like a piece of soft jelly, lives in water. There is a certain amount of diluted oxygen. This oxygen which is diluted in the water penetrates the amoeba’s body, where it oxidizes the nutrients in its body, and the energy is released which it needs to move and grow and perform other necessary functions of life.
Carbon dioxide and water are formed as a result of this oxidization process, in addition to the release of energy.
The amoeba gets rid of the excess water in an amazing fashion. It collects the drops of water until they form a bubble filled with water. It then moves to the edge of the creature’s body. Then it bursts, expelling the water from its body, then it starts to form a new bubble, and so on.
The carbon dioxide simply passes out from the amoeba’s body into the surrounding water.
In insects, the function of breathing takes place through openings in the sides of the insect’s body which lead to a network of fine tubes and get progressively smaller until they reach almost all its cells. Oxygen enters this system through the external holes, and reaches the cells of the body directly.
In man and a number of other animals, the oxygen reaches the tissues of the body through red blood cells which are carried by the blood and which contain a substance called haemoglobin.
One of the amazing features of this substance is that it binds readily with oxygen and carbon dioxide, and is also able to detach itself quickly from them. When these red blood cells reach the lungs, they pick up oxygen and travel through the arteries until they reach the small capillaries in the tissues of the body, where they release the oxygen. The oxygen passes through the thin walls of the capillaries into the tissues, where it is used to oxidize the nutrients. The carbon dioxide which results from this process of oxidization attaches itself to the haemoglobin and is carried back to the lungs, where it detaches itself and is expelled from the body by exhalation. Then more oxygen is picked up, and so on.
Breathing happens in different ways in different animals, but the result in all cases is the same, that is, bringing oxygen to the cells of the body and expelling carbon dioxide.
This offers definitive proof of two things:
First, the precise nature of this process has to be the action and decree of a Creator, because it could not have happened any other way. This result which all creatures have in common could not have come about by accident.
Second, the Creator is absolutely One, for the style of creation is based on one principle and leads to one unchanging result.”
xix) Living beings get their food in different ways
On this topic. Dr. Yusuf tells us:
“All living beings, plants and animals, need nourishment. The way in which plants get their food is completely different from the way in which animals get theirs. Plants stay in one place and are not able to move around to look for their food as animals do so. Hence they manufacture their own food on the spot, by using solar energy.
Animals, on the other hand, find their food ready-made, whether it is plant material or from other animals. The food which animals eat has to be digested and absorbed by the body so that it can benefit from it. The process of digestion is very complicated, as it breaks down complex substances into simple substances which the body is then able to absorb and benefit from.
The food substances may be fats, proteins, starches, etc. Each type of food is digested by specific enzymes which affect it but do not affect other substances which may be present side by side with it. Enzymes which work on fats will not work on proteins, and enzymes which work on proteins will not work on fats.
Is it possible that all of this could have come about as the result of blind chance or accidents, or as the result of trial and error?
Any mind which is able to think must realize that this is impossible, just as this idea is rejected outright by the mathematical laws of probability.
The minute amoeba, which is formed of a single cell, takes in its food in a strange manner. It extends a pseudopodium which surrounds the piece of food which is to be found in the water surrounding it. The food may be either tiny animal organisms or single-celled plants which are smaller than the amoeba. In this case the food will be moving if it is a tiny animal organism, and stationary if it is a single- celled plant, such as some water mosses.
It is indeed remarkable that a simple creature such as the amoeba, which has no brain or nervous system, is able to distinguish between food that is stationary and food that is moving. If the food is a moving animal, the amoeba approaches it with caution from a distance so that it will not run away. If the food is stationary and is not moving, the amoeba approaches it without caution, touching it as it surrounds it, because in this case the food is not able to escape. How does a simple creature like the amoeba, which we can barely see without the aid of a microscope, and which has no brain, nerves, eyes or other sensory organs, know this?
Once the food has been surrounded by the pseudopodium, it is now inside the amoeba’s body, encased in a drop of water. Then the amoeba’s body begins to secrete an acidic digestive enzyme which kills the prey which it has caught, if it is still alive. Then it secretes an alkaline enzyme. There is a reason for this, the most important enzyme, which is the one which digests proteins, can only work in an alkaline environment.”
xx) How blood circulates in the bodies of all living beings
Dr. Yusuf tells us about the circulation of the blood:
“Blood circulation takes place in different ways in different parts of the animals’ bodies, just as the formation of the heart varies in different kinds of animals, but the result is the same, blood circulation in parts of the body.
If we look at how the heart and circulatory system is formed in man and in a number of other animals, we will see that the heart — this beautifully designed organ — is formed of interconnected chambers whose openings are equipped with valves. The job of these valves is to allow blood to pass through in one direction, and to prevent it going back in the opposite direction.
We find similar valves in the large veins for the same reason.
The network of blood vessels, with its arteries, veins and capillaries, is designed in an amazing manner. The arteries branch out, getting smaller and smaller, until they become capillaries with thin walls. The reason why the capillaries have such thin walls is to allow the gaseous exchange of oxygen from the haemoglobin carried in the red blood cells to the tissues of the body. At the same time, carbon dioxide passes from the tissues into the capillaries, where it attaches itself to the red blood cells. Then the capillaries join back together to form veins which lead back to the lungs, where the red blood cells get rid of the carbon dioxide and pick up more oxygen, and so on.
The heart beats rhythmically for a lifetime, whereby some of its chambers expand whilst others contract, to push the pure, oxygen- bearing blood through the arteries, whilst the blood that has passed through the body returns carrying carbon dioxide, to send it to the lungs where it picks up more oxygen and gets rid of the carbon dioxide.
There circulate in the bodies of man and some other animals fluids which have specific functions, such as blood and lymph. The lymph acts as a mediator between the blood and the tissues. Blood has many functions, such as delivering nutrients to all parts of the body. If blood does not exist in the bodies of some animals, such as the liver-worm, the bodies of these animals are designed in such a way that nutrients are delivered by some other means.
In our bodies and in the bodies of a number of other animals, blood is composed of a liquid in which there float huge numbers of cells which have different forms and functions. These are called red blood cells and white blood cells.
The red blood cells, as mentioned above, play a role in the function of breathing. The white blood cells appear in a variety of forms and perform different functions. Some of them serve to swallow and destroy any germs that enter the human’s or animal’s body; they swallow them in a manner similar to that of the amoeba swallowing its food. We breathe in from the air millions of germs day and night, but we do not get sick every day because these amazing cells which float in our blood and which are able to move from the bloodstream into the tissues in cases of emergency, swallow these germs and kill them. So we do not fall ill unless the body’s resistance is weakened for some reason, or if there are more germs than usual.” إ
xxi) The way in which the senses are formed in living beings
Dr. Yusuf explains to us that “most animals have sensory organs such as sight, smell, touch and hearing. The basic format of the eye is similar in all mammals and other creatures. Its formation is very complex and amazing. The eye has a lens through which light passes and an opening through which light enters the lens. This opening through which light enters the eye automatically becomes wider in low light and smaller in bright light. The reason for that is clear. When the light is low, the eye needs more light in order to see objects clearly and when the light is bright, it needs less light.
The eye sees things in low light, but man has not yet been able to invent a camera that can take pictures in such low light.
The bee is able to see ultra-violet rays, and the owl is able to see infrared rays, which we are not able to see. These are heat rays which enable the owl to see a mouse in deep darkness, by seeing these heat rays which are emitted by the mouse’s warm body.
The rays of light which enter the eye fall on the retina at the back of the eye. The retina is formed of nine different layers, which all together are no thicker than a piece of paper. The layer which is at the back of the eye is formed of millions of rods and cones arranged in a certain order which allows them to distinguish colors. The optic nerve transmits these sensations to a specific area of the brain which translates these sensations into a clear image of what the eye sees.
This amazing formation of the lens, rods and cones, and nerves can only have happened at one time. If they were not all created at the same time, sight would have been impossible. How can it be that all these factors complement one another at the same time?
The science of mathematics tells us that it is impossible for all these things to have happened at one time by chance. A television camera is a primitive imitation of the process of vision which is accomplished by the eye. All the things that the human mind has invented are primitive imitations of what exists in nature. If a simple camera needed so much thought and reasoning to be invented, does it make any sense to say that the eye of a human or any other animal could have been formed by chance?
It is truly amazing that for every animal which needs to be able to see, Allah (s.w.t), has created eyes with which it can see. Although those eyes may differ greatly from our own in the way they are formed, they still meet the same goal, which is to see. So we find in the earthworm, for example, cells in its skin which are sensitive to light and darkness. This is all that is needed by creatures such as this worm, which lives in tunnels beneath the ground.
Insects have eyes which are formed differently from the eyes of humans, monkeys, cows, turtles and fish, but despite these differences the insects still see whatever they look at with these eyes. The fact that these different means all reach the same goal is not something that could have come about by chance; it has to be the result of a plan aimed at reaching a specific goal.
Allah (s.w.t), has blessed every creature with senses and understanding according to its needs. The housefly, for example, needs eyes to see food, and it feels every movement aimed at attacking it. Hence the Creator equipped it with a pair of compound eyes, as He gave to most insects. Each of these compound eyes is composed of hundreds of units which resemble one another and are packed close together.
Each one of these units sees part of the object that is being viewed, and these partial images combine to give the fly a complete picture. Its Creator has also given it another kind of eye, called the simple eye. There are three of these simple eyes on the top of the fly’s head; their function is to spot any movement. It is these eyes which make catching the fly almost impossible.”
xxii) How the bones and joints are designed
The bones of our bodies and those of a number of other animals can be moved at the joints. Certain muscles contract whilst others simultaneously expand in harmony, and the hand, leg, finger or other part of the body moves in the way in which the person or animal wants it to move. The joints are formed in such a way that they are able to slide, so the creature does not feel any friction.
The vertebrae of the spinal column are joined in a way that is designed to take pressure and avoid friction. The vertebrae are connected to one another, and it is an amazing design. The spinal column encloses the spinal cord to protect it just as the skull protects the brain inside it, and nerves extend from the spinal cord through holes in the vertebrae. All these design features have to have happened at the same time, because if even one aspect of this design was lacking, the animal would not be able to move. Does it make sense to suggest that all of these features could have happened at the same time as the result of an accident?
xxiii) The reason why blood clots
It is well-known that if we are wounded, the blood which comes out of the veins at the site of the wound quickly clots. There is a reason behind this. The congealed blood seals the wounded blood vessels, thus stemming the flow of blood. If this closing did not happen, the individual would bleed to death.
What it indicates is that a deliberate plan on the part of the Creator to protect living beings is the fact that we find it happening in different ways in different creatures. The result in all cases is the same. In most insects, if the insect such as a cockroach, for example, is wounded, a number of cells gather and form a seal over the wound so that no blood can come out. In some insects we find that the blood clots just as our blood does.
The fact that the same goal is reached by different means, as we have stated above, offers definitive proof of the existence of a Creator Who controls and designs things in different ways in order to reach a specific goal for which He keeps the living being alive.
xxiv) The sensory antennae of mosquitoes
It cannot be accidental that the sensory antennae of the male mosquito have longer hairs than those on the antennae of the female. In the past, it was believed that these longer hairs served as an adornment, to make the male attractive to the female. But it then became apparent that these hairs of the antennae of the male mosquito are able to pick up special sounds made by the female from a great distance. These sounds made by the female travel by waves which, to a large extent, resemble the waves of a broadcast.
The male waves his antennae in different directions just as we move the antenna of a television in order to get a clearer picture. In certain positions the antennae pick up the female’s sound clearly, and from the angle of his antennae, he knows instinctively where the female is who is making the sound. So he flies towards her, taking the shortest route, in order to mate with her.
Thus we note that the Creator has given the mosquito this amazing ability to detect the female’s sound from dozens of meters away, despite the fact that there are many other sounds crowding the airwaves. If this did not happen, the male mosquito would not be able to find the female easily, and mosquitoes would not be able to survive generation after generation.
This is like a broadcast receptor in the mosquito’s antennae which it used millions of years before man was able to discover the secrets of wireless communication. Is it possible that such a thing could have happened as the result of blind chance?
xxv) Creatures which flash in the darkness
The females of some species of insects flash in the darkness, with a frequency which is distinguishable to the males of the same species and which they do not confuse with the flashes of other species which are emitted on a different frequency. When the male sees these flashes, which are barely discernible to our eyes, he flies to the female and mating takes place, thus ensuring the continued survival of the species.
Mathematics proves that a system of this kind could never be formed by the blind and unreasonable forces of “nature.” It is a system devised by a Creator Who knows what He is doing and Who orders things in the most amazing fashion in order to achieve a certain goal.
xxvi) The digestive process in animals
We know that it is essential to cut food into small pieces to make it easy to digest. The teeth have different structures and are arranged differently in different animals in order to perform the same function, which is cutting up food.
In man, the teeth are arranged in an amazing fashion. We see that man has incisors, canines and molars, arranged in such a fashion that each kind of tooth performs a specific function. Animals do not have any kind of teeth that they do not need. Animals which feed on liquids are equipped with special means of sucking up their liquid food and conveying it to the digestive tract. When animals, which have teeth,chew, the secretions of their salivary glands mix with the food to initiate the digestive process.
In the stomach and intestines — as we have mentioned above — the animal produces enzymes, each of which work on a certain kind of food and have no effect on others.
xvii) Formation of the embryo
The development of the embryo in any kind of animal is something amazing. Science is only able to describe the stages in this process; it is incapable of explaining its nature and the forces which push it towards a specific goal, namely the formation of the embryo of a given animal.
This process begins with the joining of the male cell (sperm) to the female cell (egg), to form the fertilized cell. The fertilized cell then begins to divide by means of an amazing force which resides in it, so the cell becomes two cells, then four cells, then eight cells, and so on... until the number of cells reaches a specific limit, and it becomes like a hollow ball, the wall of which consists of a single layer of cells. Then half of the ball goes inside the other half, making two layers of cells in the wall.
In most animals — including man — a third layer of cells forms between these two layers. The cells continue to divide, and each of these three layers develops into specific organs.
The outer layer develops into the skin and nervous system, and some other parts. The middle layer develops into muscles and bones. The inner layer develops into part of the digestive tract. The cells continue to divide until the foetus is fully formed inside its mother’s womb, in mammals, or inside the egg, if it is an egg-laying animal. When the foetus is fully formed, the uterus of the mother expels it, in the case of mammals, or it breaks the egg and emerges, in the case of animals which lay eggs.
xviii) The formation of the ear
No reasonable person could imagine that the formation of the ear in man and in a number of other animals could have come about by accident. The ear has a drum which picks up sound waves and vibrates. These vibrations are carried to three tiny bones which are arranged in an amazing fashion. The pressure on both sides of the eardrum should always be equal; for that reason there is a tube behind the ear which connects to the nasal cavity. The internal part of the ear is connected to a bone which is shaped like a shell. Its function is to analyze noises and distinguish between tones; it also controls the sense of balance. If it were not for this, we would not be able to take even one step without tripping and falling.
The sounds then travel via the nerves to the auditory centre of the brain, so that the person or animal may understand the sounds he hears and distinguish them from one another. Could all of this have happened at the same time by chance? The mathematical laws of probability rule that out completely.
xxix) Filariae worms
Amazing things happen to living beings, things that cannot be counted. They point to the existence of a higher power which controls all things and enable living beings to survive. These are things which could not happen by chance, such as the lifecycle of the worm which causes the disease known as elephantiasis. These worms are called filariae worms.
In their adult stage, these worms sink into the human lymph vessels and lymph glands. They block the lymph glands, causing limbs to swell, especially the calves, one or both of them, where a person’s calf may become as big as that of an elephant. These worms mate whilst they are inside the human lymph glands, thus producing small worms which move from the lymph vessels to the blood vessels. If these worms stay in human blood vessels, they cannot complete their lifecycle. They have to move to the body of certain types of mosquitoes in order to complete their life cycle. Then they become able to infect man. So when the mosquito sucks the blood of an infected person, it also takes in some of these small worms, which then grow inside the mosquito’s body until they are fully grown. Then they are able to infect a man when the mosquito injects them into his bloodstream whilst feeding on his blood.
The scientists tried to obtain samples of these worms from the blood of people who were infected with this disease, but all their attempts met with failure, until something very strange happened.
One night, one of the scientists was staying up late at night in the laboratory. He took a blood sample from an infected person and examined it under the microscope, and was amazed to see huge numbers of these worms in the sample that he had taken, During the day he had taken a sample from the same patient and had not seen any trace of the worms. He was very curious to know the reason why the worms were present in the blood sample taken at night, when they were not present in a blood sample taken from the same person during the day.
It became clear that these tiny worms escape to the internal blood vessels during the day, and come back to the blood vessels which are closer to the surface of the skin at night. The reason for this is that the mosquitoes which feed on human blood in these places only come out at night. Hence the worms move to the blood vessels which are closer to the surface of the skin at that time, so that the mosquitoes can suck them up with the blood, and they can complete their lifecycle inside the mosquito’s body, of course, these worms do not know or understand anything about the mosquitoes in whose bodies they complete their lifecycle. They do this by instinct, i.e., there is a higher power which causes them to behave in this manner so that they can survive.
It is amazing that in places where the kinds of mosquitoes that suck blood are active in the day and not at night, we find that these worms do the opposite; they stay in the inner blood vessels at night and come to the blood vessels that are near the skin during the day, so that the mosquitoes in this case too are able to suck them up with the blood. Could this have happened by chance?
xxx) The magnetism of the earth
If we turn aside from the creation of living beings and their mind- boggling wonders, and look at this vast universe, we will find many amazing things. The first of these wonders is the magnetism that exists in the sphere of the earth. This is what keeps us attached to the earth and prevents us from being thrown off into space whilst the earth rotates.
This magnetism is different from the magnetism that exists in a bar magnet. We know that a bar magnet is able to attract some things, but not others such as meat, paper, glass, stones, sand, water, etc. But the magnetism of the earth attracts and holds everything, our bodies, glass, sand, water, stones and paper. If the earth did not hold these things, nothing would be left on its surface.
xxxi) The size, dimensions and orbit of heavenly bodies
Fred Hoyle, professor of astronomy at London University, says in his book The Nature of the Universe that there are some heavenly bodies whose size is so astoundingly vast that it almost defies imagination, and that in relation to one of these bodies the earth would look like a grain of sand.
The great American scholar Christie Morrison, the former head of the Academy of Science in New York, says: “The position of the heavenly bodies did not happen merely by chance. They are placed in a calculated manner in space. If the moon, for example, was closer to the earth by a quarter of the distance that separates us from it, the ebb and flow of the tides would become so strong that all dry land would be flooded at high tide, and as a result all creatures that live on the dry land would be drowned. If the axis of the earth was not at an angle of 23°, this would result in permanent night at the poles. Evaporation from the oceans would lead to the formation of huge icecaps, the pressure of which would cause the earth to bulge. There would be less rain, to an extent which would make life on earth impossible. The speed of the earth’s revolution would approach 1000 mph. Even if we were to imagine it spinning at a speed of only 100 mph, this would make both night and day longer, with the result that all plants and animals would burn during the day from the intense heat, and freeze at night because of the intense cold.”
In the voluminous book by Dr. Judd, Professor of philosophy at London University, there is a discussion of the different ways in which the universe and life could have come into being, discussed from a scientific and philosophical point of view. The summary of this detailed discussion is that the universe can only have come into being as the result of an amazing process of creation. Allah (s.w.t), indeed spoke the truth when He said;
“We will show them Our Signs in the universe, and in their own selves, until it becomes manifest to them that this [the Qur’an] is the truth...” (Qur’an 41: 53)